Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) is an important commercial crop grown in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, West Bengal, Bihar, U. P, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim and Orissa for its aromatic rhizomes which are used for spice and medicine. Ginger affected by many diseases (1year 1988). Of them,rhizome rot, bacterial wilt, yellows, phyllosticta leaf spot and storage rot are major diseases which cause economic loss and are dealt in this paper.
Diseases of ginger
The pathogens responsible for soft rot, bacterial wilt, and yellows are soil inhabitants invaders/dwellers having high degree of competitive saprophytic ability. Being seed and soil borne in nature, the infection of these diseases in the field many either originate from infected seed rhizomes ir soil. The spread of the disease is through soil, rain, irrigation water or rain splash to the adjacent plant within a bed as well as long the gradient of the field. Effect of climatic factors The ginger crop is rainfed as well as irrigated. A warm and humid climate predisposes the plant to infection at sprouting stage, because of its tender and succulent tissues. The spread is typical of soil borne diseases because of fairly heavy and well distributed showers during the crop growth period June to october. Disease Bacterial in ginger wilt? Bacterial ginger wilt is a soil and seed borne disease that occurs during south west monsoon. The bacteria are spread through soil, water, infected or contaminated rhizomes. The bacteria enter the plant through wounds made in the roots during transplanting, through agricultural equipments, nematodes and insects.
Infected plants wilt readily, lower leaves yellow and dry, the xylem tissues turn brown, and the plant may die. In the early stages of disease, the roots are not rotted. In many plants such as carnation and gladiolus, the symptoms may be one sided at first.
How do you treat bacterial wilt disease?
Exposing the rhizome to hot water treatment at 50 degree celcius for 10 minutes effectively disinfected the pathogen on the seed surface. Rhizome soaked in bleaching powder solution, combined with soil bio-fumigation was found to be effective in controlling bacterial wilt and enhancing ginger yield.