How To Identify Panniyur Black Pepper Varieties

India cultivates more than 75 types or strains of pepper, with Karimunda being the most widely favored. Other notable varieties include Kottanadan, Narayakodi, Aimpiriyan, Neelamundi, Kuthiravally, Balancotta, and Kalluvally in the state of Kerala. As search for high yield varities Panniyur 1 was introduced. The initial hybrid, known as Panniyur 1, was developed at the Panniyur Pepper Research Station in Kerala more than thirty years in the past. This hybrid type is widely favored by Indian pepper cultivators.

The Pepper Research Station in Panniyur achieved the status of a research facility within the KAU in 1972. In addition to its research efforts, the station also disseminates core planting materials of released black pepper varieties, namely Panniyur 1, Panniyur 2, Panniyur 3, Panniyur 4, Panniyur 5, Panniyur 6, Panniyur 7, Panniyur 8, Panniyur 9, and the latest variety Panniyur 10.

Panniyur 1

 First variety was released from Pepper Research Station, Panniyur. Panniyur 1 is the world’s first hybrid pepper variety. This variety is suited for open areas of all pepper growing regions. However, do not tolerate heavy shade. ‘Cheriakaniakadan’ a popular South Kerala variety and ‘Uthirankota’ a North Kerala variety are the male and female parents respectively of ‘Panniyur’1. Panniyur 1 world first hybrid Pepper at Panniyur Pepper Research Station in Kerala was in the year 1967. It is having long spikes with large berries, early bearing, and performs well in open conditions. Suitable to all pepper growing areas, except under heavy shade. Panniyur 1 gave a potential yield  8800( kg dry pepper/ ha).

How to identify:  Pale yellow coloured shoot tips and long spikes with the close setting of berries.

Panniyur 2

          Panniyur 2 – It is a variety released from Pepper Research Station, Panniyur in 1991. Panniyur 2 is an open-pollinated progeny of “Balankotta”. This variety is shade tolerates shaded conditions and is suited to all pepper growing areas of Kerala. It has pale purple-coloured shoot tips and medium-long spikes. It is a high-yielding and alternate-bearing variety. Panniyur 2 is vigorous in growth and has a non-pigmented growing tip. It gives a yield of 4.5 kg green pepper per vine with a dry recovery of 35.7%. The average dry pepper yield is 2,570 kg and the potential yield is 3,313kg/ha

How to identify: It has pale purple-colored shoot tips and medium-long spikes.

Panniyur 3     

         Panniyur 3 is a hybrid variety developed from Uthirankotta and Cheriyakaniyakadan.It is released in the year 1991. It is a late-maturing pepper variety. This variety is suited to all pepper growing regions of Kerala. Its peculiarities are well in open condition and high oleoresin content. It has pale yellow-coloured shoot tip and long spikes. Potential yield is the maximum yield possible given rainfall in the absence of any other constraints.(potential yield kg dry/pepper/ha 3,296.).

How to identify : It has pale yellow-coloured shoot tip and long spikes.

PANNIYUR 4

Panniyur 4 is a clonal selection from ‘Kuthiravally’. It is released in 1991. It is a high-yielding and regular-bearing variety. It is suited to all pepper growing tracts of Kerala. The variety performs well under adverse climatic conditions. It performs well in open conditions. It has dark purple-coloured shoot tips and medium-long spikes. Its potential yield is 2443 (kg dry/ pepper/ ha.)

How to identify : It has dark purple-coloured shoot tips and medium-long spikes

Panniyur 5

  It is a variety released by Pepper Research Station Panniyur in 1996. Panniyur 5 is an open-pollinated progeny of ‘Perumkodi’. It is a high-yielding and regular-bearing variety. This variety is suited to all pepper growing tracts. It tolerates shaded conditions and high oleoresin content. Panniyur 5 is colored with purple shoot tips with long bikes. Its potential yield is 2248 (kg dry pepper/ha.

How to identify: Is colored with purple shoot tips with long bikes.

Panniyur 6

 It is a selection from a local cultivar ‘Karimunda’. It gives stable and regular yield and performs well under open as well as partial shaded conditions. A special attribute of this variety of production of more spikes per unit area with close setting and attractive bold medium berries, colored with light purple shoot tip. Potential yield (kg dry pepper /ha) 3359.

How to identify:  More spikes per unit area with close setting and attractive bold medium berries, colored with light purple shoot tip.

Panniyur 7

 It is a vigorous, hardy, and regular-bearing variety. It is a open-pollinated progeny selection from “kalluvally lV”. It is released in 2000, It is recommended for Kerala under open conditions and partial shade. It has high piperine content and has a long spike, light purple colored shoot tip. It gives an average yield of 1410 kg dry pepper /ha potential yield of 2770 kg dry pepper/ha.

How to identify:   It has high piperine content and has a long spike, light purple colored shoot tip.

Panniyur 8

 High yielding, field tolerant to phytophthora foot rot and drought. Hybrid (HB 20052) panniyur 6 x panniyur 5. Panniyur 8 was released in 2013. It perform well in open condition, with light purple colored shoot tip and dark green colored spikes. It gives 3000  kg/dry pepper/ha.

How to identify:  With light purple colored shoot tip and dark green colored spikes

Panniyur 9

It is the open-pollinated progeny selection from Panniyur 3. It was released on 2017. Performs well in open conditions and hilly tracts, field tolerant to phytophthora foot root, drought, and cold stress, high-quality berries. It has greenish-yellow coloured shoot tips, and medium-long spikes. It gives 3150  kg/dry pepper/ha.         

How to identify:  It has greenish-yellow coloured shoot tips, and medium-long spikes

Panniyur 10

The high-yielding and climate-resilient hybrid variety of black pepper was developed by the Kerala Agriculture University (KAU Panniyur(Patent – Panniyur 1 *Cul 54(OP of cv. Karivalli). This variety can survive drought and heavy rainfall issues which is considered as best black pepper variety. Panniyur 10 has been tested in various climate conditions and it proved to withstand all climate changes.

It can fruit within 2 years of planting and can obtain almost 3.1 kg/vine.  It has long spikes and bold berries. It is also resistant to phytophthora infections.

While numerous types of black pepper have been created and introduced for widespread cultivation, Panniyur-1 has endured over time and remains the dominant choice in Indian states and other countries cultivating black pepper. This particular variety is familiar to all black pepper cultivators and is favored both in modest backyard gardens and extensive plantations. Its unique features, such as a lengthy spike, robust berry development, and a bountiful yield, set it apart.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *